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Referencing
 

 

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Quotes, Citations, References, and Bibliography 

It is always good to put the occasional quote into your essay. Most often, the quotes you use are in fact citations from materials you have read that you use to support your arguments. Sometimes, however, a more general quote can be used to set or alter the tone of your thoughts.

Examples of well known anecdotal quotes

"Any one who is not a liberal under thirty years old has no heart, anyone who is a liberal over thirty is a fool." (Winston Churchill)

"Whatever you do will be insignificant, but it is very important that you do it."  (Mahatma Ghandi)

"I don't know with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones." (Albert Einstein)

"The warning message we sent the Russians was a calculated ambiguity that would be clearly understood." (Alexander Haig)

 "Thinking is the hardest work there is, which is probably the reason so few engage in it. (Henry Ford)

 "Learn from mistakes of others. You can't live long enough to make them all yourself." (Eleanor Roosevelt)

 We must live all out lives in the time that remains. Pilar, For Whom the Bell Tolls

 Sometimes we do not know the source

 "The early bird may get the worm, but the second mouse gets the cheese." Anonymous 

Citations

For famous quotes or well known sayings no citation is necessary other than to mention the name of the speaker.

If you read something in a book and wish to use it word for word in your essay you must cite the source to credit the author. Citation should be done so that the reader can locate it. Basically, the modern method is to briefly cite the name and page number (Smith, p.67) in the essay text and to provide a full reference to that source in the reference section at the end of your essay. Note that methods vary slightly. The method of citation varies from school to school and from publication to publication. Basically, you should follow the format prescribed by your school or the publication you are writing for. If you are simply writing for yourself then you should choose one format and be consistent.

References

For famous quotes no reference need be made, but for more general citations from books, journals, articles, or the internet accurate references need to be attached to the end of your essay. This is so that others can follow up on your findings.

The referencing format varies from school to school and from publication to publication. Basically, you should follow format prescribed by your school or the publication you are writing for. If you are simply writing for yourself then you should choose one format and remain consistent. Remember, only supply references for citations that are in your essay.

Examples:

Marx, Karl. (1963). Early Writings, edited by T. B. Bottomore. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Weber, Max. (1946). The Social Psychology of the World Religions. In From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, translated and edited by H. H. Gerth and C. W. Mills. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kendall, Laurel (1985). Shamans, Housewives, and Other Restless Spirits. Women in Korean Ritual Life. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Lu, Xun (1927). Fen (The Tomb). Beijing: Weimingshe.

Rothschild, Matthew (1988). Babies for sale. South Koreans make them, Americans buy them. In The Progressive Vol. 52, No. 1: 18-23.

Bibliography

A bibliography is simply a list of all the books, journals, or other materials that have read in support of the writing. Essays do not usually have or need a bibliography. They are usually found at the back of lengthy textbooks.

 
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Last modified: 02-11-2013